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skelbimas: interl3ksis

Zinau, kad cia skelbimams ne vieta...

tuo labiau tokio pobūdžio

ieskau kompiuterinio f0tonijos TarptautŽodŽodyną interl3ksis
Pasiruošęs mainytis į kitas e-lietuvybes:
tild3s biur4s 2004, D4bartinės LT kalbos ž0dynas ir kt.


Prajuokino viduryj nakties.

Esu isitikines, kad is ryto bus nebejuokinga.

"В этой жизни ещё не всё можно скачать."

nu dar 5nizza fristailee
i soyuz nerushimyj...


blogatmintis: vodoun zombis

A human being is made up of five basic components, according to vodoun belief:
the corps cadavre, or mortal flesh;
the n'āme, or spirit of the flesh;
the z'étoile, or star of destiny;
the gros-bon-ange;
and the ti-bon-ange, the two parts of the soul.

The physical or mortal parts of a human being are the corps cadavre and the n'āme.
The corps cadavre is the body that decays after death.
The n'āme (star of destiny) is the spirit that allows the body to function while alive and passes as energy into the soil after death.
The z'étoile decides a person's destiny and resides in the heavens, apart from the body. It is not of great importance to vodoun belief.
The most important components of humans are the two parts of the soul, the ti-bon-ange and the gros-bon-ange.
The gros-bon-ange means literally, "great good angel." At conception, part of the cosmic lifeforce passes into the human being. This is the force that all living things share, connecting us to each other in a great web of energy. The gros-bon-ange keeps the body alive and sentient, and after death, passes back into the reservoir of energy in the cosmos.
Without the gros-bon-ange, a person loses their lifeforce; it is possible, according to vodoun belief, to separate a person's gros-bon-ange from them and store it in a bottle or jar, where the energy can be directed to other purposes.

The ti-bon-ange makes up the other half of a person's soul. Meaning "little good angel," it is the source of personality. The ti-bon-ange represents the accumulation of a person's knowledge and experience, and is responsible for determining individual characteristics, personality and will.
It can leave the body when dreaming, for instance, or when the body is being possessed by a loa.
The ti-bon-ange is the part of the human make-up that is most vulnerable to sorcery, even more so than the gros-bon-ange.

In death, activities are simply changed from one condition to another:
a) The body, the shell for the lifeforce, simply decays
b) while the n'āme that animated the body returns to the ground as earth energy.
c) It is the soul, the gros-bon-ange and the ti-bon-ange, that endures in a different form. The gros-bon-ange returns to the high solar regions from which its cosmic energy was first drawn; there it joins the other loa and becomes a loa itself.
d) The ti-bon-ange hovers around the body for a time and then departs for the land of the dead, aided by rituals performed by the houngan.

Gros-Bon-Ange. The most important is to send the gros-bon-ange to Ginen, the cosmic community of ancestral spirits, where it will be worshipped by family members as a loa itself.
If this is not accomplished, the gros-bon-ange can become trapped on earth, bringing misfortune on surviving family members.
Ti-Bon-Ange. It hovers around the body for a period of nine days, at which point a ritual called nine night is performed to ensure that the ti-bon-ange stays in the grave. If this is not done, the ti-bon-ange may also wander the earth and bring misfortune on others.

Even after death, the ti-bon-ange can be employed to do evil acts. One way to raise a ti-bon-ange – in this case, more properly a duppy – is to throw rum and three pennies on a grave, and then beat it with a calabash stick. You can then command the duppy to go after someone.
The ti-bon-ange can also be used to possess an enemy in an evil ritual called sending a mort. The loa of the cemetery, Baron Cimetičre, must be invoked to draw the dead soul from the tomb. Obtaining the spirit of the dead from the cemetery is called prise du mort.

During the period in which the ti-bon-ange hovers over the body after death, a bokor can capture it and turn it into a zombi astral. In contrast to a zombi, which is a dead body without a soul, a zombi astral is a dead soul without a body. It wanders around and performs deeds at the command of the bokor, never allowed to achieve a final rest.

There are a few ways to prevent a dead loved one from being misused by a bokor. One is to kill the body again by stabbing it in the heart or decapitating it. Hoholi, or special sesame seeds placed in the coffin, also prevent the machinations of a bokor. Cut tufts of hair and snipped fingernails are sure signs of a bokor's tampering with a dead body.

Probably the most famous use of the dead in vodoun is zombification. Zombis are dead bodies that have no souls.

Zombis are created by a black magician in vodoun, called a bokor. The bokor performs a ritual that causes a person to die and, within a certain amount of time, to be called back to life as a soulless body.
There are a significant number of researchers who believe zombification to be an actual practice, achieved not through magic and ritual, but rather through certain powerful drugs. These drugs make a person seem dead through extensive intoxication and slowing of the bodily functions. When they are revived, they are so brain-damaged that they cannot remember who they were or who their family was. Thus, they can be controlled by the bokor.

<...> the bokor does administer a powerful zombi poison to a living person to begin the process. This poison is so toxic that it merely has to be absorbed through the skin to work. No one knows exactly what the components of the poison are, but it is thought to contain substances from various toxic animals and plants, including the gland secretions of a particular frog, the bouga toad, which are 50-100 times more potent than digitalis and also contain a hallucinogen. Other ingredients supposedly include millipedes and tarantulas, the skins of poisonous tree frogs, seeds and leaves from poisonous plants, human remains (for effect), and four types of puffer fish, which contain tetrodotoxin, one of the most poisonous substances in the world.

After administration, the victim becomes completely paralyzed and falls into a coma. To all intents and purposes, he or she appears dead. Sometimes, the victim remains conscious and witnesses his or her own funeral and burial.
The bokor raises the victim after a day or two and administers a hallucinogenic concoction called the "zombi's cucumber" that revives the victim.
Once the zombi has been revived, it has no power of speech and its senses have been dulled. The human personality is entirely absent and the memory is gone. Zombis are thus easy to control, and are used by bokors as slaves for farm labor and construction work.
Contrary to what is portrayed in popular movies, zombis do not shuffle around and try to eat human brains. In fact, practitioners of vodoun do not fear being harmed by a zombi so much as they fear being made into one.
Giving a zombi salt is supposed to restore their powers of speech and taste, and activates a homing instinct that sends them back to their graves and out of the bokor's influence.


isradingumo lygiai


In the 1960s and 1970s, Altshuller categorized the solutions into five levels.
• Level one. Routine design problems solved by methods well known within the specialty. No invention needed. About 32% of the solutions fell into this level.
• Level two. Minor improvements to an existing system, by methods known within the industry. Usually with some compromise. About 45% of the solutions fell into this level.
• Level three. Fundamental improvement to an existing system, by methods known outside the industry. Contradictions resolved. About 18% of the solutions fell into this category.
• Level four. A new generation that uses a new principle to perform the primary functions of the system. Solution found more in science than in technology. About 4% of the solutions fell into this category.
• Level five. A rare scientific discovery or pioneering invention of essentially a new system. About 1% of the solutions fell into this category.

Table 1. Levels of Inventiveness.
Level Degree of inventiveness % of solutions Source of knowledge Approximate # of solutions to consider
1 Apparent solution 32% Personal knowledge 10
2 Minor improvement 45% Knowledge within company 100
3 Major improvement 18% Knowledge within the industry 1000
4 New concept 4% Knowledge outside the industry 100,000
5 Discovery 1% All that is knowable 1,000,000